Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a structured approach to discovering potential failures that may exist within the design of a manufacturing product or process.
Failure modes are the ways in which a process can fail. Effects are the ways that these failures can lead to waste, defects or harmful outcomes for the customer. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is designed to identify, prioritize and limit these failure modes.
There are two broad categories of FMEA, Product FMEA and Process FMEA.